Physiology is one of the most important subject among the basic medical subjects, is quite challenging as it require a lot of memorization. One of the main challenge is the vast syllabus that students must incorporate in order to crack entrance exams.
Despite a good memory, selection of the best study approach and tactics to prepare for this backbreaking subject can make the difference between success and failure. Thus, to become proficient in physiology, one must preferably emphasize on how to prepare.
Based upon the previous year’s exam analysis, PrepLadder has proposed section-wise subject matter to acquaint students about how to prepare for this subject. This analysis revealed that basic medical subjects were the deciders of the overall ranking for students as several questions were formulated from these subjects.
Thus, in order to excel physiology, students cannot afford to miss the below mentioned sections that must be prepared methodically:
GIT (Gastrointestinal Tract)
It is one of the indispensable section as majority of important topics are covered under this which needs to be thoroughly learnt and should not be missed. These topics are as follows:
- Digestion and Absorption
- Vitamins and Minerals
- Gastric juice, Pancreatic juice, Succus entericus (Intestinal juice)
- Liver- Its functions, role in digestive process, enterohepatic circulation along with Jaundice and its types
- Gall bladder- Mainly bile juice and its role in digestion
- Hormones of GIT
- Glands and their secretions
Another imperative section among high yielding sections is respiratory system. It contributes to the majority of questions especially from the topics mentioned below.
- Mechanics of Respiration
- Muscles of Respiration
- Lung Volumes
- Gas exchange in Lungs
- Oxygen Transport- Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
- Carbon dioxide Transport- Chloride shift
- Acidosis and Alkalosis
- Regulation of Respiration
Apart from GIT and Respiratory system, CVS is another paramount section in the physiology which must be meticulously prepared.
- Cardiac Cycle
- Components of Blood and Lymph
- Blood types
- Hemoglobin- mainly its structure and function
- Hemostasis- including its steps, coagulation factors, extrinsic and intrinsic pathways
- Screening tests such as clot retraction time, prothrombin time, clotting time or coagulation time, bleeding time, capillary fragility test (Hess test or Tourniquet test)
- Local vasoconstrictors and local vasodilators
Central Nervous System
The most highlighted topics from this section are:
- Nerve Fibers
- Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System- including their features, functions and differences
Other topics that must be familiarized under this section include:
- Injury to nerve- including its types, causes and nerve regeneration
- Pain Reflexes
- Extra pyramidal tracts- Its location and functions
- Vision- including structure of eye, muscles of eye, function of different parts, defects of vision
Muscles and Nerve Physiology
Physiology of muscles and nerve is also the most important topic as at least one question is asked under this section. However, you need not cram entire neuro physiology. The vital topics that must be prepared are:
- Muscle and its Types
- Contraction and its Types
- Disease of Muscles
- Neurons and its Types
- Nerve- particularly its Excitation and Conduction
- Neuromuscular junction
- Neurotransmitters, Neuromodulators
Moreover, more emphasis must be put on the topic “Synapse- its structure and function” as it is the major topic under this section from exams point of view.
The dominant topics under this section that must be stressed upon are:
- Thyroid gland
- Disorders of endocrine system
Also, acquaint yourself with topics such as:
- Types of Endocrine glands
- Hormones- their function and effect in hyposecretion and hypersecretion
- Endocrine functions of pancreas
- Hormonal control of calcium and phosphate, physiology of bone
- The pituitary gland
Cellular and Molecular Physiology
The most important topics from this section include:
- Extracellular Matrix
- Transport across biomembranes
- Plasma Proteins
- Cell organelles- particularly their structure and function.
Following are the topics that are important from this section:
- Nephron- especially its structure
- Glomerular Filtration
- Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion
- Regulation of Sodium excretion
- Regulation of Water excretion
- Regulation of Potassium excretion
- The Renin-Angiotensin System
- Endocrine function of Kidneys
Books to Refer
You may refer to the following recommended books to prepare these topics for physiology:
- Guyton & Hall - Textbook of Medical Physiology
- A.K. Jain - Textbook of Physiology
- Sembulingam - Essentials of Medical Physiology
- William F. Ganong - Review of Medical Physiology
Moreover, study from good books that contain large variety of MCQs.
Moreover, you may validate your preparation by taking our Online Subject-Wise Free Test.
“The will to succeed is important, but what is more important is the will to prepare”
If you judiciously prepare at least the above mentioned topics, you will definitely be able to score well in physiology in any dental entrance exam.
Also read: Effective Study Plan to Prepare for Exams
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